High blood pressure: Causes and Risk Factors

High blood pressure: Causes and Risk Factors

High blood pressure: Causes and Risk Factors

Blood pressure is an important physiological mechanism by which blood circulates through blood vessels and maintains a normal internal environment of our body. Normal blood pressure is the vital status of our body which needs to coordinate and maintain normal activities of different organs.

But, nowadays, most of the adult people of the USA are suffering from high blood pressure or hypertension. In most patients, the actual cause of hypertension is undiagnosed.

 Today's topic of Dr. Hasan's Blog - www.dr-hasan.info is High blood pressure: Causes and Risk Factors

Based on cause or aetiology, hypertension may be divided as-

Essential or primary hypertension:

In this case aetiology of hypertension or high blood pressure is unknown. The parentage is about 90-95% of total hypertensive patients. These patients suffer from primary hypertension or essential hypertension. This type of hypertension develops gradually and very slowly. It may take many years to develop and diagnosed unexpectedly in a routine medical checkup.

Secondary hypertension:

This type of hypertension develops due to the effects of other preexisting diseases or health conditions.


Causes of development of secondary hypertension are-

Kidney diseases-

  • Renal vascular disease
  • Different parenchymal renal diseases, especially in glomerulonephritis
  • Polycystic kidney disease


Different endocrine (gland and hormone-related) diseases-

  • Phaeochromocytoma
  • Cushing’s Syndrome
  • Conn’s Syndrome
  • Glucocorticoid-suppressive hyperaldosteronism.
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Acromegaly
  • Primary hypothyroidism
  • Thyrotoxicosis
  • Liddle’s syndrome etc.


Some drugs-

  • An oral contraceptive pill containing estrogen
  • Anabolic steroid
  • Corticosteroids
  • cold remedies
  • decongestants
  • NSAIDs (commonly used pain killers) etc.


Congenital anomaly- Coarctation of the aorta

 Today's article of  www.dr-hasan.info -Dr. Hasan's Blog is High blood pressure: Causes and Risk Factors

Physical conditions-

  • Pregnancy
  • Obesity
  • Obstructive sleep apnea etc.


But, we have to give more concern about the risk factors of hypertension. Because these either individually or combinedly may cause high blood pressure.


Risk factors of High blood pressure or hypertension:

Among these, some are not modifiable, and some can be changed or modified by lifestyle modification.


Nonmodifiable risk factors of Hypertension:-

  • Age: The risk of development of high blood pressure increases with age. Most middle-aged persons are suffering from hypertension.


  • Sex: Male are predominant than females to develop hypertension.


  • Race: Tendency to develop hypertension is seen more in African-Americans


  • Family history:A history of high blood pressure in your close relatives of your family, such as father, mother, grandfather etc., is a risk factor for an individual to develop hypertension.


Modifiable risk factors of Hypertension:-

  • Obesity: Blood pressure has to rise automatically to meet the demand of blood supply in extra tissue. It is one of the major risk factors in the USA.


  • Physical inactivity: Inactive people gradually gain weight, and their arterial walls become narrow by the deposition of fat. So, physically inactive people have a risk to develop hypertension.


  • Smoker or tobacco user: Smoking may cause a temporary spike in the rise of blood pressure. It raises blood pressure around 8-9 mm of Hg within 30 minutes of smoking. But if a person frequently smokes his or her blood pressure will be rise persistently.

  • Too much sodium salt containing diet:Too much sodium intake can cause our kidneys to retain fluid in our body, which increases blood pressure.


  • Potassium less diet:Potassium helps to maintain the proper amount of sodium in our body. Less potassium intake may increase sodium in the blood.

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  • Insufficient vitamin D intake:Vitamin D helps synthesise an enzyme by our kidneys, regulating blood pressure. So, a low level of vitamin D in the blood can raise blood pressure.


  • Alcohol intake: Taking small amounts of alcohol may reduce your blood pressure. But heavy drinkers usually develop high blood pressure within a few years. Try to avoid binge drinking.


  • Stress:High levels of stress, mental and physical, raise blood pressure.


  • Sleep Apnea: More than 10 million Americans have sleep apnea. Sleep Apnea sometimes can be life-threatening in which soft tissues in the throat collapse and block the airway. Sleep apnea is also a risk factor for different medical diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure, diabetes and stroke.


Hypertension may be preventable by avoiding the predisposing factors and changing lifestyle.


You should read-


Dr. Hasan Ebna Amin



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